不同生育期补光对温室甜椒生长、 产量及品质的影响

段青青1,张禄祺1,2,张自坤1,*
1德州市农业科学研究院, 山东德州253015;2河北农业大学园艺学院, 河北保定071001

通信作者:张自坤;E-mail: 13853455807@163.com

摘 要:

本文以甜椒奥黛丽为试材, 以自然不补光为对照(CK), 通过利用3种不同光质(红蓝2:1: 2R1B; 红蓝4:1: 4R1B; 红蓝8:1: 8R1B)LED补光灯补光, 研究了不同生育期(苗期、花期和果期)补光对甜椒生长、产量及品质的影响, 以期筛选出适宜不同生育期的补光光质。结果显示, 与对照相比, 苗期补光, 4R1B处理的茎粗、叶面积、果实糖酸比、 VC和可溶性糖含量显著增加, 8R1B处理的地上部生物量最高、硝酸盐含量最低, 4R1B8R1B处理的单株果实数、单果重和单产显著高于2R1B。花期补光, 3种光质处理的硝酸盐含量显著降低, 糖酸比和可溶性糖含量显著升高, 单果重和单产无显著变化, 2R1B处理的叶面积、鲜重、地上干重、 VC、糖酸比和可溶性糖含量最高。果期补光, 3种光质处理的可溶性糖含量显著升高, 8R1B处理的地上干、鲜重、 VC和可溶性糖含量最高, 硝酸盐含量最低, 4R1B8R1B处理的单株果实数、单果重、单产和糖酸比显著高于2R1B。采用隶属函数法分别对甜椒不同生育期补光处理的产量品质指标进行综合评价, 苗期、花期和果期的综合得分排序分别为4R1B>8R1B>2R1B>CK2R1B>8R1B>4R1B>CK8R1B>4R1B>2R1B>CK。综上, LED光质对甜椒的影响因生育期不同有所差异,苗期最佳补光光质是4R1B, 花期最佳补光光质是2R1B, 果期最佳补光光质是8R1B

关键词:甜椒; 补光; 光质; 产量; 品质; 综合评价

收稿:2020-12-11   修定:2021-02-01

资助:现代农业产业技术体系(CARS-24-G-12)、山东省现代农业产业技术体系专项基金(SDAIT-05-03)和山东省重点研发计划项目 (2019GNC21331)

Effects of supplemental illumination at different growth stages on growth, yield and fruit quality of greenhouse sweet pepper

DUAN Qingqing1, ZHANG Luqi1,2, ZHANG Zikun1,*
1Dezhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Dezhou, Shandong 253015, China; 2College of Horticulture, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, Hebei 071001, China

Corresponding author: ZHANG Zikun; E-mail: 13853455807@163.com

Abstract:

The effects of LED supplementary lighting at different growth stages on growth, yield and fruit quality of sweet pepper (Capsium annuum) were conducted to select the optimal light quality with cultivar ‘Aodaili’ as experimental material. Plants were treated under 3 kinds of light quality with red (R): blue (B) ratio at 2:1 (2R1B); 4:1 (4R1B) and 8:1 (8R1B) at seedling, flowering and fruiting stage respectively, with no supplemental light as control (CK). Results showed that the stem diameter, leaf area, sugar-acid ratio, Vitamin C content and soluble sugar content of 4R1B treatment increased signifcantly compared with CK at the seedling stage. However, the shoot biomass was the highest, but the nitrate content was the lowest under 8R1B treatment. Additionally, the fruit number, single fruit weight and yield were signifcantly higher under 4R1B and 8R1B treatments than those under 2R1B treatment. At the flowering stage, the nitrate content signifcantly decreased, while the sugar-acid ratio and soluble sugar content signifcantly increased under three light treatments, but there was no signifcant difference in single fruit weight and yield among different treatments. Moreover, the leaf area, fresh weight, shoot dry weight, Vitamin C content, sugar-acid ratio and soluble sugar content were the highest under 2R1B treatment. In contrast with CK, the soluble sugar content was signifcantly increased under three light treatments at the fruiting stage. Furthermore, the shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, Vitamin C content and soluble sugar content were the highest, but the nitrate content was the lowest under 8R1B treatment. In addition, the fruit number, single fruit weight, yield and sugar-acid ratio were signifcantly higher under 4R1B and 8R1B treatments than that of CK. We used all indexes of yield and fruit quality to analyze the effect of light quality on plant growth at different development stages based on the fuzzy membership function. The comprehensive scores were in the order of 4R1B>8R1B>2R1B>CK, 2R1B>8R1B>4R1B>CK and 8R1B>4R1B>2R1B>CK in seedling stage, flowering stage and fruiting stage, respectively. These results showed that the influences of LED light quality on sweet pepper cultivation vary owing to different growth periods. In conclusion, the optimal supplemental lighting recipe for the cultivation of greenhouse sweet pepper is 4R1B at the seedling stage, 2R1B at the flowering stage and 8R1B at the fruiting stage.

Key words: sweet pepper (Capsium annuum); supplemental illumination; light quality; yield; fruit quality; comprehensive evaluation

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