阳春砂落果规律及其生理机制

吕秉鼎1,胡佳佳1,2,汤丽云3,苏景4,徐杰1,5,何国振1,*
1广州中医药大学中药学院, 广州510006;2丰城市人民医院药剂科, 江西丰城331100;3华南农业大学生命科学学院, 广州5106424;4阳春市砂仁试验示范场, 广东阳春529600;5广东一方制药有限公司广东省中药配方颗粒企业重点实验室, 广东佛山528244

通信作者:何国振;E-mail: heguozhen@gzucm.edu.cn

摘 要:

为获得阳春砂(Amomum villosum)落果规律及其落果生理机制, 本研究统计了阳春砂授粉后各时期的坐果率及落果率, 比较了正常果实与脱落果实之间的可溶性糖含量和细胞壁水解酶活性, 以及果柄之间的显微特征与激素含量。结果表明, 2014年与2015年的阳春砂最终落果率分别为64.72%73.61%; 落果高峰期均为授粉后第9~15天。脱落部位位于果实与果柄连接处; 离层细胞形态稍扁长且比邻近细胞小。脱落果实可溶性糖含量比正常果实的低; 脱落果实的细胞壁水解酶活性比正常果实的高。正常果整体果柄的赤霉素(GA3)与脱落酸(ABA)含量均比脱落果整体果柄的高, 但生长素(IAA)含量在两种整体果柄间无明显差异。将果柄分段检测IAA的含量, 发现脱落果果柄靠近果实端部位的IAA含量比正常果果柄靠近果实端部位的高。果实中可溶性糖降低与果柄中的GA3水平降低可能促进了落果。该研究获得了阳春砂落果规律并初步分析了其生理落果机制, 为制定阳春砂保果措施奠定了理论基础。

关键词:阳春砂; 落果规律; 生理机制

收稿:2020-11-27   修定:2020-12-28

资助:广东省林业科技创新项目(2018KJCX033)、广东省农业科技创新体系管理项目(0835-190Z22404211)和广东省重点领域研发计划 “现代种业”重大专项项目(2020B020221002)

The study on the fruit dropping law and physiological mechanism of Amomum villosum

LÜ Bingding1, HU Jiajia1,2, TANG Liyun3, SU Jing4, XU Jie1,5, HE Guozhen1,*
1College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006, China; 2Medicine Section, Fengcheng People´s Hospital, Fengcheng, Jiangxi 331100, China 3; 3College of Life Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; 4Yangchun Field Test and Demonstration of Amomum villosum, Yangchun, Guangdong 529600, China; 5Guangdong Yifang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula Granule, Foshan, Guangdong 528244, China

Corresponding author: HE Guozhen; E-mail: heguozhen@gzucm.edu.cn

Abstract:

To investigate the fruit dropping law and physiological mechanism of Amomum villosum, the
fruit dropping rate and fruit setting rate were calculated at different fruit development stages after pollination. The distinguishment in soluble sugar and hydrolytic enzymes were determined between normal fruits and dropping fruits. The difference in microscopic structures and hormone levels of the peduncles were identifed between normal fruits and dropping fruits as well. The results indicated that the fnal fruit dropping rates were 64.72% and 73.61% in 2014 and 2015 respectively. The peak dropping period of fruit was from the 9th to the 15th day after pollination. The abscission part of fruit was located at the joint of fruit and fruit peduncle. The cells at the abscission layer of fruit peduncle appeared to be smaller and slightly prolate under microstructure observation, comparing to neighboring cells. The percentage of soluble sugar in dropping fruits was lower than that in normal fruits. While the activities of cell wall hydrolase enzymes in dropping fruits were higher than that in normal fruits. GA3 and ABA levels in the whole peduncle of normal fruits were signifcantly higher than that in dropping fruits. There was no signifcant difference of IAA level between these two whole peduncles. Nonetheless, the location where was near the fruit abscission part, had signifcantly higher IAA level in dropping fruit peduncle than in normal fruit peduncle. It was speculated that the decreased percentage of soluble sugar and diminished level of GA3 in peduncle stimulated the dropping of fruit. This study proposed the law of fruit dropping and preliminarily analyzed its physiological mechanism, which established a theoretical foundation for establishing effective fruit-preserving measures in A. villosum cultivation.

Key words: Amomum villosum; fruit dropping law; physiological mechanism

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