禾谷类作物茎秆特性与茎倒伏关系的研究

赵小红1,白羿雄1,2,*,姚有华1,安立昆1,吴昆仑1,*
1青海大学农林科学院/青海省青稞遗传育种重点实验室/国家麦类改良中心青海青稞分中心, 西宁810016;2西北农林科技大学农学院, 陕西咸阳712100

通信作者:白羿雄;E-mail: yixiongbai@163.com;吴昆仑;E-mail: wklqaaf@163.com

摘 要:

倒伏是作物生产中重要限制因子之一, 倒伏会使作物产量降低、品质变差。作物倒伏主要分为根倒伏和茎倒伏, 禾谷类作物中茎倒伏研究报道居多。茎秆纵向生长调控株高, 其与赤霉素、生长素等激素生物合成及其信号转导途经相关; 横向生长同茎粗和壁厚等性状密切相关, 主要涉及纤维素、木质素等结构性碳水化合物的合成和代谢过程。抑制茎秆纵向生长促进横向生长, 可使株高降低, 茎秆变粗, 茎秆抗折力提升, 最终增强植株抗倒伏特性。本文对禾谷类作物茎秆特性与倒伏关系研究以及抗倒伏性状调控机理进行阐述, 以期为作物抗倒伏品种选育及其机理研究提供参考。

关键词:倒伏; 茎倒伏; 茎秆特性; 分子机理

收稿:2020-07-22   修定:2021-01-04

资助:国家重点研发计划(2019YFD1001705)、国家自然科学基金(32060483)、青海省农林科学院创新基金重点研发项目(2019-NKY-01) 和国家现代农业产业技术体系(大麦青稞)建设专项(CAS-05)

Research progress on the relationship between stem characteristics and crop stem lodging

ZHAO Xiaohong1, BAI Yixiong1,2,*, YAO Youhua1, AN Likun1, WU Kunlun1,*
1Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences of Qinghai University/Qinghai Key Laboratory of Hulless Barley Genetics and Breeding/Hulless Barley Branch of State Wheat Improvement Centre, Xining 810016, China; 2College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Xianyang, Shaanxi 712100, China

Corresponding author: BAI Yixiong; E-mail: yixiongbai@163.com; WU Kunlun; E-mail: wklqaaf@163.com

Abstract:

Lodging is one of the important restricting factors of crop production, which causes a decrease in crop yield and poor quality. The crop lodging is mainly divided into root lodging and stem lodging, and there are more reports on stem lodging in cereal crops. The vertical growth of the stem influences plant height, which is usually related to the biosynthesis or signal transduction pathways of plants hormones like gibberellin and auxin; whereas the horizontal growth is associated with the stem diameter and wall thickness, which involves the biosynthesis and metabolic processes of structural carbohydrates such as cellulose and lignin and other non-structural carbohydrates. To a certain extent, inhibiting the vertical growth of the stem and promoting the horizontal growth can reduce the plant height, thicken the stem, increase the bending resistance and ultimately enhance the lodging resistance of the crops. This article summarizes the researches on the relationship between crop stem characteristics and lodging as well as the regulation mechanisms of lodging-resistant traits, in order to provide a reference for the breeding of crop lodging-resistant varieties and the study of lodging resistance mechanism.

Key words: lodging; stem lodging; stem characteristics; molecular mechanism

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