叶片吸收水分的研究进展

潘志立1,2,3,郭雯1,3,王婷1,李永萍2,杨石建1,3,*
1云南大学生态与环境学院, 昆明650500;2云南大学资源植物研究院, 昆明650504;3云南省植物繁殖适应与进化生态学重点实验室, 昆明650500

通信作者:杨石建;E-mail: shijian.yang@ynu.edu.cn

摘 要:

叶片吸收水分(foliar water uptake, FWU)是植物通过叶片“逆蒸腾作用”吸收和利用空气水分的现象。近年来, FWU一直是植物生理生态学领域的研究热点, 几乎所有生态系统中的植物都存在FWU生理过程。FWU对植物个体、群落和生态系统的水分及碳平衡起到了不可忽视的作用, 尤其是在全球气候变暖导致干旱加剧的背景下, FWU备受关注。为此, 本文总结了国内外研究具有FWU现象的各科物种数量、FWU过程和影响因素: (1)降雨和云雾导致空气相对湿度上升或土壤水势降低等外界环境因素; (2)叶片表面结构对水分的渗透影响; (3)叶片内部结构和物质通过改变叶片吸水速率和通量进而影响FWU。同时, 本文归纳了FWU的生理生态学意义: FWU可通过提高植物叶片水势, 增加气孔导度和光合速率等, 促进植物的生存和生长发育。此外, 在极端情况下, 叶片吸收的水分还可以通过植物的维管系统进入到根系及根周的土壤中, 具有改善土壤水分平衡和保持水土等作用。


关键词:叶片吸收水分; 水分平衡; 气孔; 角质层; 毛状体; 生理生态学意义

收稿:2020-08-12   修定:2020-11-04

资助:国家自然科学基金(31660118、31760114和31800334)、教育部“春晖计划”合作科研项目(230700120)、云南省科技厅基础研究计 划青年项目(2019FD004)、云南大学“东陆中青年骨干教师”培养计划项目(2018YDDLQN69)和云南大学“双一流”建设项目中省优 秀青年培育项目(2018YDJQ024)。

Research progress on foliar water uptake

PAN Zhili1,2,3, GUO Wen1,3, WANG Ting1, LI Yongping2, YANG Shijian1,3,*
1College of Ecology & Environmental Science, Yunnan University, Kunming 650500, China; 2Economic Plant Institute, Yunnan University, Kunming 650504, China; 3Yunnan Key Laboratory of Plant Reproductive Adaption and Evolutionary Ecology, Kunming 650500, China

Corresponding author: YANG Shijian; E-mail: shijian.yang@ynu.edu.cn

Abstract:

Foliar water uptake (FWU) is a phenomenon in which plants absorb and utilize water through the “reverse transpiration” of leaves. In recent years, FWU has always been one of research focuses in the field of plant ecophysiology due to this physiological process exists in the plants of almost all ecological systems. FWU plays an important role in the water and carbon balance of plant individuals, communities and ecosystems. Along with drought increase caused by global warming, it has attracted much attention. For this purpose, we summarized the number of species in each family with FWU phenomenon researched at home and abroad, and the process of FWU and the main factors influencing FWU: (1) external physical environmental factors that lead to an increase in the air relative humidity or a decrease in the soil water potential due to rain and cloud; (2) the effect of leaf epidermal structure on water penetration; (3) the internal structure and material of the leaf which can change the leaf water absorption rate and flux during the FWU progress. At the same time, we further summarized the ecophysiological significances of FWU, and suggested that FWU is beneficial to the growth of plant through improving the water potential of leaf, increasing stomatal conductance and accelerating photosynthesis, etc. In addition, FWU can also be transported into plant roots as well as surrounding soil through vascular systems to improve water balance and preserve water and soil.


Key words: foliar water uptake; water balance; stomata; cuticle; trichome; ecophysiological significances

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