展望人工光合作用

许大全*, 陈根云*
中国科学院上海生命科学研究院植物生理生态研究所光合作用与环境生物学实验室, 上海200032

通信作者:许大全;E-mail: dqxu@sippe.ac.cn, chenggy@sibs.ac.cn

摘 要:

如果把陆生植物和水体中的蓝细菌、藻类的光合作用定义为“自然光合作用”的话, 那么依据其原理或灵感研发的人造装置例如“人工叶”、“光电化学电池”和“光生物反应器”等将太阳能转化为化学能并贮存于食物或燃料(例如H2)中的过程, 就是“人工光合作用”。由于光合作用效率低下和常常受环境条件的严重制约以及水体中大量生物质难以收获利用, 自然光合作用远不能满足人类社会的需要。人工光合作用如此富有魅力, 充满希望, 看来是解决当今世界面临的粮食、能源和环境或全球气候变化三大急迫问题的必由之路。为了激发更多人的兴趣, 促进人工光合作用研究的发展, 本文简要介绍它的重要意义和过去十多年来该研究领域特别是人工光能制氢和人工CO2还原等方面的重要进展。

关键词:自然光合作用; 人工光合作用; 人工光催化的氢生产; 人工二氧化碳还原; 人工叶; 光电化学电池; 光生物反应器

收稿:2018-04-10   修定:2018-06-13

资助:国家重点基础研究发展计划(“973”计划) (2015CB150104)。

Perspectives of artificial photosynthesis

XU Da-Quan*, CHEN Gen-Yun*
Lab of Photosynthesis and Environmental Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China

Corresponding author: XU Da-Quan; E-mail: dqxu@sippe.ac.cn, chenggy@sibs.ac.cn

Abstract:

If the photosynthesis of terrestrial plants and aquatic algae as well as cyanobacteria is defined as natural photosynthesis, then artificial photosynthesis is such a process that the man-made devices such as artificial leaf, photo-electrochemical cell, photo-bioreactor based on the principle or inspiration of natural photosynthesis convert sunlight energy into chemical energy and store in food or fuel such as hydrogen gas. Natural photosynthesis cannot fulfil the requirements of the human society due to its low efficiency, limitation of environment conditions, and difficulty of biomass harvesting from the seas and lakes. Artificial photosynthesis is so glamorous and hopeful that it appears to be the only way to overcome three urgent problems of food, energy and environment or global climate change in the world. This review introduces briefly the importance of artificial photosynthesis and great strides in the research area over the last decade, especially in aspects of artificial hydrogen production and CO2 reduction, in order to arouse the interest of more peoples and stimulate the research and development of artificial photosynthesis. Key words: natural photosynthesis; artificial photosynthesis; artificial and light-catalytic hydrogen production; artificial carbon dioxide reduction; artificial leaf; photo-electrochemical cell; photo-bioreactor

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