锥栗花序分化发育过程中的生理生化变化

范晓明1,2, 袁德义1,2,*, 李建中3, 田晓明4, 熊欢2, 朱周俊2
中南林业科技大学, 1经济林培育与保护教育部重点实验室, 2经济林育种与栽培国家林业局重点实验室, 长沙410004; 3江西黎川沙塘隘木材检查站, 江西抚州344611; 4湖南省森林植物园, 长沙410116

通信作者:袁德义;E-mail: yuan-deyi@163.com

摘 要:

为了探讨锥栗花序分化发育的营养生理基础, 为人工调控锥栗雌雄花比提供理论依据, 以‘华栗4号’锥栗为试材, 采用石蜡切片法和田间观测法, 明确花序分化特点, 对比分析锥栗两性花序和雄花序各时期生理生化特征。结果表明: 锥栗雄花序具有芽内分化特点, 分化发育时间长达11个月; 而锥栗两性花序为芽外分化, 分化时间集中在4~5月。锥栗两性花序可溶性糖含量、可溶性蛋白质含量和C/N在大多数时期均显著高于雄花序, SOD、POD和CAT活性在性别分化时期(时期II)均达到最高值, N、P、K、Ca、Mn和Ze含量与雄花序在大多数时期存在显著性差异。锥栗花序分化与物质能量代谢和矿质元素积累等生理生化因子密切相关, 且相关因子之间存在协同或者拮抗作用; 花性别分化时期是两性花序分化生理生化因子变化的关键时期; 高水平的碳水化合物、可溶性蛋白、P、Ca、Zn以及C/N有利于锥栗两性花序的分化。

关键词:锥栗; 花序; 性别分化; 生理生化变化

收稿:2017-09-07   修定:2017-11-17

资助:国家“十二五”科技支撑计划课题(2013BAD14B04)、湖南省教育厅优秀青年项目(17B280)和中南林业科技大学林学重点学科开放基金(2016YB02)。

Physiological and biochemical changes in Castanea henryi during the inflorescence differentiation

FAN Xiao-Ming1,2, YUAN De-Yi1,2,*, LI Jian-Zhong3, TIAN Xiao-Ming4, XIONG Huan2, ZHU Zhou-Jun2
1Key Laboratory of Non-Wood Forest Product of State Forestry Administration, 2Key Laboratory of Cultivation and Protection for Non-Wood Forest Trees of Ministry of Education, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, China; 3Jiangxi Lichuan Sha Tang Ai Timber Inspection Station, Fuzhou, Jiangxi 344611, China; 4Hunan Forest Botanical Garden, Changsha 410116, China

Corresponding author: YUAN De-Yi; E-mail: yuan-deyi@163.com

Abstract:

This study aims to find out the physiological basis for the nutrition of Castanea henryi that will induce inflorescence differentiation, thus, providing a theoretical basis for the artificial regulation of the ratio of female to male flowers. Plants of the ‘Hua Li 4’ cultivar of C. henryi were used as test materials. We used the paraffin section method to obtain a clear and definite sequence of the inflorescence differentiation process, as well as analyzed the physiological and biochemical characteristics between bisexual and staminate inflorescences in different periods. The results showed that staminate inflorescence differentiation originated from flower bud differentiation, with the period for differentiation and development being 11 months. However, the bisexual inflorescence produced during the pumping process after hermaphroditic flower bud initiation and the differentiation period occur from April through May. The contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, and C/N ratios in bisexual inflorescences were significantly higher than those in male inflorescences at most stages. In bisexual inflorescences, SOD, POD, and CAT enzymatic activities reached the maximum levels during the sex differentiation period (period II). The contents of P, K, Ca, Mn, and Zn in bisexual inflorescences were significantly different from those in male inflorescences at most stages. The process of inflorescence differentiation in C. henryi relate closely to physiological and biochemical factors, such as energy metabolism and accumulation of mineral elements, as indicated by apparent synergistic or antagonistic effects and related factors. Further, the period of flower sex differentiation is the key period for differentiation of a bisexual inflorescence owing to changes in physiological and biochemical factors. The high carbohydrate, soluble protein, P, Ca, and Zn levels and C/N ratios observed during this period are favorable for differentiation of the bisexual inflorescence of C. henryi.

Key words: Castanea henryi; inflorescence; sex differentiation; physiological and biochemical changes

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