芥子油苷-黑芥子酶防御系统的最新研究进展

张凯鑫, 赵海燕, 李晶*
东北农业大学生命科学学院, 哈尔滨150030

通信作者:李;E-mail: lijing@neau.edu.cn

摘 要:

芥子油苷是一类含氮、硫的植物次生代谢物质, 它与其水解酶黑芥子酶共同组成了十字花目植物特有的防御系统。黑芥子酶和芥子油苷分别储藏在植物的不同细胞或同一细胞的不同区域。当植物受到机械损伤或病虫侵袭时, 底物和酶接触, 芥子油苷被降解成多种具有生物活性的物质。这些降解产物可对昆虫及病原菌表现出较强的毒害作用, 也有可能作为信号分子启动植物其它防御机制, 如气孔的关闭、细胞程序性死亡及细胞壁胼胝质累积等。本文对近年来黑芥子酶防御系统的最新研究成果进行了综述, 介绍了芥子油苷和黑芥子酶的合成及分布、芥子油苷降解产物的多样性、芥子油苷-黑芥子酶系统对昆虫和病原菌的防御作用和防御机制及芥子油苷的代谢与初生代谢的关系, 并对目前该领域研究中存在的问题和研究趋势进行了讨论。

关键词:芥子油苷; 黑芥子酶; 降解产物; 细胞程序性死亡; 气孔关闭; 胼胝质累积

收稿:2017-10-12   修定:2017-11-16

资助:黑龙江省教育厅科学技术研究项目(12531003)和黑龙江省科学基金项目(JJ2017ZR0164)。

Recent research advances on glucosinolate-myrosinase defense system

ZHANG Kai-Xin, ZHAO Hai-Yan, LI Jing*
College of Life Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China

Corresponding author: LI Jing; E-mail: lijing@neau.edu.cn

Abstract:

Glucosinolates are secondary metabolites containing nitrogen and sulfur. Together with their hydrolase myrosinase, glucosinolates provide a specific defensive mechanism in Brassicaceae order. Glucosinolates and myrosinase are harboured either in different cells or in different compartments of the same cell. When plant tissue is damaged, glucosinolates come into contact with myrosinase and are broken down into a variety of biologically active metabolites. These breakdown products are demonstrated to be very toxic to insects and pathogens. In addition to direct defense, the glucosinolates are found to be functional as signaling molecules, and initiate other plant defense pathways, such as stomatal closure, programmed cell death and callose accumulation. In this paper, we summarized the recent research achievements of the glucosinolate-myrosinase defense system and the several important aspects were reviewed. The biosynthesis and distribution of glucosinolates and myrosinase, the diversity of glucosinolate breakdown products, the defense mechanisms of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system against insects and pathogens and the relationship between glucosinolate degradation and primary metabolism were reviewed. Open questions and future perspectives in this research field were also discussed.

Key words: glucosinolates; myrosinase; degraded products diversity; programmed cell death; stomatal closure; callose deposition

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