杂草稻灌浆期剑叶的叶绿素荧光特性

徐文蓉, 赵灿, 强胜, 戴伟民, 宋小玲*
南京农业大学杂草研究室, 南京210095

通信作者:宋小玲;E-mail: sxl@njau.edu.cn

摘 要:

杂草稻(Oryza sativa L. f. spontanea)是与水稻同属同种的严重影响水稻产量和品质的杂草。杂草稻的早熟特性是其造成严重危害的重要原因之一。目前杂草稻的早熟现象虽有报道, 但机制尚不明确。本研究以扬州、泰州、茂名和丹东地区的杂草稻与栽培稻为试验材料, 同质园下比较了杂草稻与栽培稻从播种到抽穗、从抽穗到完熟(灌浆期)所需天数的差异, 在灌浆期剑叶的叶绿素含量、叶绿素荧光参数, 分析它们和杂草稻早熟的关系。结果显示: 杂草稻比相应栽培稻从抽穗到完熟所需时间短10~33 d。在灌浆过程中, 杂草稻剑叶的叶绿素含量低, 或下降速度快于栽培稻, 存在早衰现象。杂草稻剑叶的光合性能指数PIABS、最大光化学效率(φPo)、活性反应中心数(RC/ABS)、用于电子传递的量子产额(φEo)和光系统II(PSII)受体侧相对电子传递速率(Ψ0)均在抽穗期最高, 整体呈逐渐降低的趋势。栽培稻则大多在乳熟期最高, 呈先上升后降低的趋势, 但其下降速度快于杂草稻。剑叶的早衰、达到PSII最大光合性能时间提前可能是杂草稻早熟的机制之一。

关键词:杂草稻; 叶绿素含量; 快速叶绿素荧光; 早熟

收稿:2017-05-16   修定:2017-09-07

资助:转基因生物新品种培育重大专项课题(2016ZX08011-001)。

The chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of flag leaf of weedy rice during grain filling

XU Wen-Rong, ZHAO Can, QIANG Sheng, DAI Wei-Min, SONG Xiao-Ling*
Weed Research Laboratory, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China

Corresponding author: SONG Xiao-Ling; E-mail: sxl@njau.edu.cn

Abstract:

Weedy rice (Oryza sativa L. f. spontanea), the same biological taxon as cultivated rice, is a noxious paddy weed, which seriously affected the yield and quality of rice. The early-maturity endows its dominant competition with cultivated rice causing serious crop yield losses. This characteristic of weedy rice has been reported, however, the mechanism has not been researched. Weedy rice and cultivated rice from Yangzhou, Taizhou, Maoming and Dandong were planted in the same field. The duration from sowing to heading, and from heading to maturity, the chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of flag leaf during grain filling between weedy rice and cultivated rice were compared. The duration from heading to maturity of weedy rice was shorter 10–33 days than that of respective cultivated rice. The flag leaf of weedy rice had lower chlorophyll content or aged earlier than cultivated rice. The photosynthetic performance index (PIABS), the maximum quantum yield for primary photochemistry (φPo), the density of reaction centers per PSII antenna chlorophyll (RC/ABS), the quantum yield for electron transport (φEo) and the probability that a trapped exciton moves an electron into the electron transport chain beyond QA - (Ψ0) of flag leaf of weedy rice reached peak at heading stage, then decreased gradually. And those of flag leaf of most cultivated rice increased from heading to milk stage and then decreased gradually. However, the PIABS, φPo, RC/ABS, φEo and Ψ0 of flag leaf of weedy rice all decreased slower than that of cultivated rice. The flag leaf of weedy rice senesced earlier than that of cultivated rice. The highest photosynthetic efficiency of weedy rice occurred earlier than that of cultivated rice. This may be one of the mechanisms of early maturity of weedy rice.

Key words: weedy rice; chlorophyll content; fast chlorophyll fluorescence; early maturity

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