砧穗互作对越冬番茄生长及叶片碳氮同化能力的影响

王磊1,2, 高方胜3, 徐坤2,*
1德州市农业科学研究院, 山东德州253015; 2山东农业大学园艺科学与工程学院, 山东泰安271018; 3德州学院生态与园林建筑学院, 山东德州253023

通信作者:徐坤;E-mail: xukun@sdau.edu.cn

摘 要:

采用裂区设计, 研究不同砧穗组合对嫁接番茄植株生长、叶片叶绿素含量、光合特性以及叶片氮同化相关物质、关键酶活性的影响。结果表明, 砧木显著影响番茄接穗地上部干物质量, 接穗亦显著影响砧木根系干物质量、根系总长度、根系总面积、根尖数和根系活力, 砧木与接穗之间交互作用显著, 强壮根系砧木与长势强接穗嫁接组合植株长势较强, 产量较高。砧木的长势可显著影响番茄叶片叶绿素含量和光合特性, 其中强壮砧木‘MIDAKO’的所有嫁接组合的叶绿素含量、净光合速率(Pn)、最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)和PSII反应中心的实际光化学效率(ΦPSII)均较高, 而长势较弱砧木嫁接组合均较低, 不同长势接穗也显著调控砧木嫁接后植株叶片光合能力, 定植后100 d时, ‘戴维斯/ANTA-T’组合的叶片PnFv/FmΦPSII显著低于其接穗自根嫁接苗, ‘罗拉/ANTA-T’却显著高于其接穗自根嫁接苗。同时也表明, 不同砧、穗组合显著影响嫁接番茄植株叶片氮同化相关物质和同化关键酶的活性, 在生长后期表现尤为明显。所有嫁接组合中, 强壮砧木与长势强接穗嫁接后, 植株叶片的氮含量、游离氨基酸含量较高, 叶片硝酸还原酶、谷氨酰胺合成酶和谷氨酸合酶的活性也表现较高, 而长势弱的砧木和接穗嫁接组合表现较差。可见, 砧木和接穗的长势均显著影响嫁接番茄叶片碳和氮的同化能力, 最终共同作用于嫁接植株生长发育。

关键词:番茄; 砧木; 接穗; 光合; 氮同化

收稿:2017-02-20   修定:2017-08-22

资助:山东省现代农业产业技术创新体系(SDAIT-05-05)、国家十二五科技支撑计划(2014BAD05B03)、山东省高等学校科技计划项目(J15LF53)和国家级星火计划项目(2015GA740089)。

Effect of rootstock-scion interaction on plant growth and leaf carbon-nitrogen assimilation in overwintering tomato

WANG Lei1,2, GAO Fang-Sheng3, XU Kun2,*
1Academy of Agriculture Science of Dezhou City, Dezhou, Shangdong 253015, China; 2College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an, Shangdong 271018, China; 3College of Ecology and Garden Architecture, Dezhou University, Dezhou, Shangdong 253023, China

Corresponding author: XU Kun; E-mail: xukun@sdau.edu.cn

Abstract:

The grafting experiment was conducted with a split plot design to study the effects of different scion and rootstock on plant growth, leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and leaf nitrogen substance and enzyme activity. The result showed that rootstock had significant effect on dry matter of aerial part, and scion also had significant effect on root dry matter, root length, root area, root tips, and root activity, and their interactions were also significant. Rootstocks vigor had significant effect on leaf chlorophyll content and leaf photosynthesis, which all grafting union with stronger rootstock ‘MIDAKO’, performed higher induced higher chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), optimal photosynthetic efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and actual photochemical efficiency (ΦPSII), whereas all grafting union with weaker rootstock had poorer performance. Moreover, scion vigor also had significant effects on leaf photosynthesis of grafting tomato with the same rootstock, which Pn, Fv/Fm and ØPSII of ‘D/ANTA-T’ was lower than self-root grafted scion D/D, but ‘L/ANTA-T’ was higher than L/L, at 100 d after transplanting. There were also significant effects of rootstock and scion on leaf nitrogen assimilation substance and assimilation enzyme activities, especially in the later period of tomato growth. Nitrogen content, free amino acid content and the activities of NR, GS and GOGAT were higher in leaf of grafting tomato with stronger rootstock and scion. However, these indexes of leaf were lower in tomato with weaker rootstock and scion. It was proved that rootstock and scion vigor all significantly influenced leaf carbon and nitrogen assimilation, and eventually worked together to growth and development of grafting tomato.

Key words: tomato; rootstock; scion; photosynthesis; nitrogen assimilation

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