修剪强度对锥栗叶片生理及产量的影响

王刚, 袁德义*, 邹锋, 熊欢, 朱周俊, 刘智强, 欧阳芬
中南林业科技大学, 经济林培育与保护省部共建教育部重点实验室, 长沙410004

通信作者:袁德义;E-mail: yuan-deyi@163.com

摘 要:

为探究锥栗树体合理的修剪强度, 以7年生‘华栗3号’锥栗为试材, 通过轻修剪(15%修剪量)、中修剪(30%修剪量)、重修剪(45%修剪量)和不修剪(对照)处理, 研究了不同修剪强度对锥栗叶片质量、矿质元素含量和光合作用以及产量的影响。结果表明, 不同修剪强度对锥栗不同冠层叶片质量影响不同, 其中中修剪综合效果最好, 在冠层上部, 其单叶面积最大为72.92 cm2, 比对照增加了18.38%; 在树冠中部和下部, 叶片厚度均显著大于轻修剪和对照处理; 中修剪的冠层下部叶片SPAD值分别较重修剪、轻修剪和对照增加4.27%、8.05%和8.29%。中修剪处理显著提高了叶片中N、P、K和Ca含量, 但中修剪与重修剪Ca含量差异不显著, 重修剪叶片Ca含量最高为35.56 mg·g-1。中修剪的冠层上部叶片的净光合速率为12.85 μmol·m-2·s-1、蒸腾速率为3.75 mmol·m-2·s-1和气孔导度为0.18 mmol·m-2·s-1, 都是最高, 较对照分别增加了20.3%、12.3%和20.0%; 重修剪冠层上部胞间CO2浓度较对照处理降低了2.32%。锥栗不同修剪强度的光合参数差异显著, 中修剪锥栗树体叶片的最大光合速率、光饱和点和羧化效率显著高于其他处理, 而光补偿点和暗呼吸速率显著低于其他处理。中修剪处理锥栗单株产量最高为10.25 kg, 分别较重修剪、轻修剪与对照提高了9.58%、10.96%和21.61%, 而重修剪处理单果重最高为7.76 g。综上, 中修剪较其他处理能显著提高锥栗叶片质量与光合能力及产量, 为锥栗结果期适宜的修剪强度。

关键词:锥栗; 修剪; 叶片质量; 光合特性; 产量

收稿:2016-09-07   修定:2016-12-23

资助:国家“十二五”科技支撑计划课题“板栗和锥栗高效生产关键技术研究与示范” (2013BAD14B04)和湖南锥栗优质高效栽培技术研究与产业化示范项目(XLK201526)。

Effects of different pruning intensity on leaf physiology and yield in Castanea henryi

WANG Gang, YUAN De-Yi*, ZOU Feng, XIONG Huan, ZHU Zhou-Jun, LIU Zhi-Qiang, OUYANG Fen
Key Laboratory of Cultivation and Protection for Non-wood Forest Trees of Ministry of Education, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, China

Corresponding author: YUAN De-Yi; E-mail: yuan-deyi@163.com

Abstract:

In order to explore the reasonable pruning intensity of Castanea henryi, we used 7 years C. henryi ‘Huali No.3’ as experimental materials to study the effects of different pruning intensities on leaf quality, mineral element contents, photosynthesis and yield by light pruning (15% pruning), medium pruning (30% pruning), heavy pruning (45% pruning) and non-pruning (control) treatments. The results showed that different pruning intensity had different effects on the leaf quality of C. henryi canaliculata, and the mid-pruning had the best effect. In the upper canopy, the single leaf area was 72.92 cm2, which was 18.38% higher than the control. In the lower canopy, the SPAD values were 4.27%, 8.05% and 8.29% higher than those of the pruning, light pruning and control, respectively. The P, K and Ca contents in leaves, but the Ca content in medium pruning and heavy pruning was not significant, and Ca content in heavy pruned leaves was 35.56 mg·g-1. The net photosynthetic rate of the upper leaves was 12.85 μmol·m-2·s-1, the transpiration rate was 3.75 mmol·m-2·s-1 and the stomatal conductance was 0.18 mmol·m-2·s-1, which was the highest, increased by 20.3%, 12.3% and 20.0% respectively compared with the control. The intercellular CO2 concentration in the upper canopy decreased by 2.32% compared with the control. The photosynthetic parameters of C. henryi were significantly different, and the maximum photosynthetic rate, light saturation point and carboxylation efficiency were significantly higher than those of other treatments, while the light compensation point and dark respiration rate were significantly lower than those of other treatments. The yield of single plant was 10.25 kg, which was 9.58%, 10.96% and 21.61% higher than that of pruning and light pruning, respectively, while the weight of single cropping was 7.76 g. In conclusion, middle pruning could significantly improve leaf quality, photosynthetic capacity and yield of C. henryi than other treatments, and suitable pruning intensity for C. henryi fruit.

Key words: Castanea henryi; pruning; leaf quality; photosynthetic characteristics; yield

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