红肉苹果果皮类黄酮组分及抗氧化活性分析

项亚1,2, 赵瑞雪3, 赖方秾4, 孙欣1,2,5, 孙晓红1,2, 戴洪义1,2, 张玉刚1,2,*
1青岛农业大学园艺学院, 山东青岛266109; 2青岛市园艺植物遗传改良与育种重点实验室, 山东青岛266109; 3山东省果茶技术推广站, 济南250013; 4青岛农业大学生殖细胞生物学实验室, 山东青岛266109; 5南京农业大学园艺学院, 南京210095

通信作者:张玉刚;E-mail: zyg4458@163.com

摘 要:

以红肉苹果杂种优系2010-5果皮为试材, pH示差法测定总花青苷含量, 超高压液相色谱串联四极杆飞行时间质谱(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS)分析推定类黄酮组分, 对其抗氧化活性进行了评价。结果表明: 红肉苹果2010-5果皮总花青苷含量为390.2 mg•kg-1 (FW), 是其果肉总花青苷含量的1.4倍; 质谱技术推测出果皮中类黄酮主要有12种成分物质: 杨梅酮、儿茶素、矢车菊素-3-O-半乳糖苷、山奈酚-3-O-芸香糖苷、山奈酚衍生物、矢车菊素-3-O-琥珀酸-阿拉伯糖、花葵素-3-甲酰葡萄糖苷、矢车菊素-3-O-阿拉伯糖苷、矢车菊素-3-O-葡萄糖苷、槲皮素苷元、飞燕草素-3-乙酰芸香糖酰-5-葡萄糖苷和槲皮素衍生物。与对照维生素C (Vc)相比, 红肉苹果果皮类黄酮提取物对3种自由基表现出较好的清除效果, 尤其是对DPPH的清除效果最好, 达90%以上。当红肉苹果果皮类黄酮提取物和Vc浓度为35 mg•L-1时, 对DPPH清除率分别为92.77%和79.87%, 对•OH-清除率分别为52.11%和37.55%, 对O2 ¯•清除率分别为33.98%和13.44%。这为今后红肉苹果的选育及天然抗氧化剂的开发和保健功能的研究提供理论依据。

关键词:红肉苹果; UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS; 类黄酮; 花青苷; 抗氧化活性

收稿:2015-05-03   修定:2016-08-31

资助:国家自然科学基金(31372032)、国家现代苹果产业技术体系(CARS-28-01-07)、山东省良种产业化工程、‘泰山学者’建设工程和青岛市民生科技计划项目(15-9-2-99-nsh)。

Components of flavonoids and antioxidant activity analysis of the extracts from red-flesh apple peel

XIANG Ya1,2, ZHAO Rui-Xue3, LAI Fang-Nong4, SUN Xin1,2,5, SUN Xiao-Hong1,2, DAI Hong-Yi1,2, ZHANG Yu-Gang1,2,*
1College of Horticulture, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong 266109, China; 2Qingdao Key Laboratory of Genetic Development and Breeding in Horticultural Plants, Qingdao, Shandong 266109, China; 3Shandong Provincial Extension Station of Fruits and Tea, Jinan 250013, China; 4Institute of Reproductive Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong 266109, China; 5College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China

Corresponding author: ZHANG Yu-Gang; E-mail: zyg4458@163.com

Abstract:

The peels of red-fresh apple 2010-5 were taken as tested materials to determine the total anthocyanin content by pH differential method, and ultra performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was used to analyze components of flavonoids, which were evaluated on antioxidant activities. The results showed that the total content of anthocyanins in red-fresh apple peel was 390.2 mg•kg-1 (FW), which was 1.4 times of these in flesh. Twelve flavonoids were found in red-fresh apple peel assayed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS, including myricetin, catechin, cyanidin-3-O-anidin galactoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol derivative, cyanidin-3-O-succinylarabinoside, pelargonidin-3-formylglucoside, cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, delphinidin-3-acetyl rutinose acyl-5-glucoside and quercetin derivative. The extracts from red flesh apple peel showed better scavenging effects on the 3 types of free radicals than vitamin C (Vc), especially on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), which was more than 90% clearance rate. When the concentration was 35 mg•L-1, the scavenging rates of the extracts and the control Vc on DPPH were 92.77% and 79.87%, on •OH- were 52.11% and 37.55%, on O2 ¯• were 33.98% and 13.44%, respectively. These results provide a theoretical basis for the breeding of red flesh apple, the development of natural antioxidants and study of the health function of red flesh apple.

Key words: red-fresh apple; UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS; flavonoids; anthocyanin; antioxidant activity

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