交替滴灌施氮对日光温室黄瓜生长、光合特性、产量及水氮利用效率的影响

刘学娜1, 刘彬彬2, 崔青青1, 张文东1, 李曼1, 艾希珍1,2, 毕焕改1,2, 李清明1,2,3,*
1山东农业大学园艺科学与工程学院, 2作物生物学国家重点实验室, 3农业部黄淮海设施农业工程科学观测实验站, 山东泰安271018

通信作者:李清明;E-mail: gslqm@sdau.edu.cn

摘 要:

以‘津优35号’黄瓜为试材, 采用两因素裂区设计, 主区因素为灌溉方式, 设传统滴灌(C)和交替滴灌(A) 2个水平; 裂区因素为施氮量, 设900 kg•hm-2 (经验施氮, N2)、450 kg•hm-2 (减施氮, N1)和0 kg•hm-2 (不施氮, N0) 3个水平, 共6个处理, 对黄瓜的生长、光合特性、产量、品质及水氮利用效率等进行了研究。结果表明: 交替滴灌处理下黄瓜株高和茎粗显著降低, 但黄瓜的根系生长及根系活力显著提高。与传统滴灌相比, 交替滴灌施氮显著提高叶片色素含量, 降低了蒸腾速率, 而净光合速率差异不显著。对于果实品质而言, 在同一灌溉方式下, 果实中亚硝酸盐含量随着施氮量的增加而显著增加, 为N2>N1>N0, 可溶性糖和维生素C含量则是先升高后降低。在同一施氮水平下, 交替滴灌处理黄瓜的各项品质指标均比传统滴灌含量高。交替滴灌处理的灌水量较传统滴灌处理减少43.6%, 平均水分利用效率提高78.5%, AN1产量最高, CN2次之, 二者之间差异并不显著。氮肥农学利用效率(ANUE)则随着施氮量的增大而降低。交替滴灌处理下, 减施氮有利于获得更高的产量, 且ANUE高; 而在传统滴灌条件下, 经验施氮处理的产量较减施氮仅增加0.9%, 但ANUE降低36.9%。综上所述, 交替滴灌减施氮(AN1)处理可在保证黄瓜生长、产量和品质的同时显著提高水氮利用效率, 可作为日光温室黄瓜提质增效的一种水氮管理模式。

关键词:黄瓜; 交替滴灌施氮; 产量; 水氮利用效率

收稿:2016-04-14   修定:2016-05-26

资助:国家自然科学基金(31471918)、山东省自然科学基金(ZR2013CM008)、山东省高等学校科技计划项目(J14LF06)和山东省农业重大应用技术创新项目。

Effects of alternative drip irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on growth, photosynthesis, yield, and water-nitrogen use efficiency of cucumbers in solar greenhouse

LIU Xue-Na1, LIU Bin-Bin2, CUI Qing-Qing1, ZHANG Wen-Dong1, LI Man1, AI Xi-Zhen1,2, BI Huan-Gai1,2, LI Qing-Ming1,2,3,*
1College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, 2State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, 3Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Environment Controlled Agricultural Engineering in Huang-Huai-Hai Region, Ministry of Agriculture, Tai’an, Shandong 271018, China

Corresponding author: LI Qing-Ming; E-mail: gslqm@sdau.edu.cn

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to reach a high-yield, good quality and high-efficiency water-nitrogen system for cucumber in the solar greenhouse. ‘Jinyou No. 35’ cucumber was chosen as the test cultivar. The experiment utilized the split-plot design with drip irrigation as main plots and nitrogen as subplots. The main plots was drip irrigation (conventional drip irrigation and alternative drip irrigation), the subplots was nitrogen (experiential nitrogen 900 kg•hm-2; saving 50% nitrogen compared to experiential nitrogen 450 kg•hm-2; no nitrogen 0 kg•hm-2). So there were six treatments in total. The results showed that the alternative drip irrigation and nitrogen fertilization decreased significantly the plant height and stem diameter of cucumbers, but the root growth characteristics and root activity were increased significantly. Compared to conventional drip irrigation, the alternative drip irrigation improved the content of leaf pigment, and the transpiration rate (Tr) was significantly declined, but net photosynthetic rate (Pn) was not difference. For the quality of cucumbers, the content of nitrate under the same irrigation levels significantly added with the increasing of nitrogen, N2>N1>N0. However, the content of VC and soluble sugar showed a trend of first increase and then decline. Under the same nitrogen levels, the quality of cucumber fruit in the alternative drip irrigation treatment was better than that of the conventional drip irrigation. Compared to conventional drip irrigation, the amount of irrigation water in the alternative drip irrigation decreased by 43.6%, but the average of water use efficiency increased by 78.5%. About the yield, the AN1 was the first place, CN2 was second, and there is no difference. The agronomy use efficiency of nitrogen (ANUE) declined with the increasing of nitrogen. Under the alternative drip irrigation, the low nitrogen was better yield and ANUE. Under the conventional drip irrigation, we put the experiential nitrogen (N2), the yield increased by 0.9% than CN1, but the ANUE decreased by 36.9%. Therefore, the alternative drip irrigation with 450 kg•hm-2 can optimize coupling effect of water-nitrogen; improve water-nitrogen use efficiency significantly, which can be used as a water-nitrogen management mode of solar greenhouse cucumber.

Key words: cucumber; alternative drip irrigation and nitrogen fertilization; yield; water-nitrogen use efficiency

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