越南‘红心’火龙果黑腐病病原真菌鉴定及环境因素影响分析

姚昇华*, 范诗睿, 邢云莱, 何嘉琳
上海中学国际部, 上海200231

通信作者:姚昇华;E-mail: yaoshenghua@shsid.org;Tel: 021-64555419

摘 要:

应用病原形态学和真菌rDNA-ITS分子标记, 对引起上海市进口越南‘红心’火龙果黑腐病的病害进行了分离与鉴定, 明确了一种主要的致病菌仙人掌平脐蠕孢(Bipolaris cactivora)。该菌的最适生长温度为30~35 ℃, 在40 ℃时停止生长, 而低温对该真菌的生长也有明显的抑制效果。菌丝生长的最适pH为9。在不同的光照条件下, 真菌生长的速率没有明显的变化, 但该菌的色素生成对不同光照条件有明显的响应。对该菌分泌纤维素酶与果胶酶的能力进行鉴定, 发现该菌能够明显产生大量纤维素酶与果胶酶。将该菌接种到其他常见的果蔬上, 结果显示该菌能够侵染白萝卜、西红柿和梨, 具有一定的广谱寄主性。

关键词:越南‘红心’火龙果; 黑腐病; 市场病害; 仙人掌平脐蠕孢

收稿:2015-05-25   修定:2015-08-07

Pathogen Identification and Environmental Effects Analysis of Black Rot Disease of Imported Vietnamese ‘Red’ Pitaya

YAO Sheng-Hua*, FAN Shi-Rui, XING Yun-Lai, HE Jia-Lin
Shanghai High School International Division, Shanghai 200231, China

Corresponding author: YAO Sheng-Hua; E-mail: yaoshenghua@shsid.org; Tel: 021-64555419

Abstract:

In this study, the major pathogen that caused black rot disease of imported ‘red’ pitaya was studied morphologically and molecularly. Bipolaris cactivora was the most important pathogen which caused black rot on imported Vietnamese ‘red’ pitaya. The optimum living temperature for B. cactivora growth was 30–35 ℃. The mycelium stopped growing at 40 ℃, and low temperature inhibited the growth of mycelium. The optimum pH for B. cactivora growth was 9. Different light conditions had no significant effect on the growth of mycelium, but it affected the production of pigments. The abilities to produce excreted cellulase and pectase were also tested and the results showed B. cactivora can produce these cell wall degrading enzymes. B. cactivora was incubated onto other fruits and vegetables, and the results showed that it can also infect white radish, tomato and pear.

Key words: Vietnamese ‘red’ pitaya; black rot disease; market disease; Bipolaris cactivora

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