不同基因型小麦苗期和成熟期耐低氮性的比较

徐红卫1,2,*, 陆瑞菊1,2,*, 刘成洪1,2, 高润红1,2, 郭桂梅1,2, 黄亦辰1,2,3, 杨沙沙1,2,3, 陈志伟1,2, 何婷1,2, 李颖波1,2, 黄剑华1,2,**
1上海市农业科学院生物技术研究所, 上海201106; 2上海市农业遗传育种重点实验室, 上海201106; 3上海海洋大学水产与生命学院, 上海201306

通信作者:徐红卫;E-mail: sw1@saas.sh.cn;Tel: 021-62201032

摘 要:

采用苗期营养液水培与全生育期田间种植的方法, 以相关形态、产量、生理指标作为评价依据, 对5份不同基因型小麦的耐低氮性进行了比较。结果表明: 相对于正常供氮, 低氮胁迫条件下, 小麦苗期株高降幅12%~29%、叶片干重降幅11%~57%、根冠比增幅4%~52%、叶片氮素含量增幅62.6%~91.7%, 叶片氮素累积量降幅47%~71%。成熟期小麦的株高降幅21%~26%、每株有效穗数降幅20%~41%、小麦产量降幅26%~69%。这表明, 小麦苗期株高、叶片干重和氮素累积量的下降可限制小麦产量的形成。可以认为, 不同基因型小麦苗期与成熟期的耐低氮性存在一定联系, 各基因型小麦在耐低氮性上存在差异, 可以在苗期进行耐低氮性初步鉴定。通过比较、鉴定小麦苗期和成熟期的不同性状, 能够挖掘出耐低氮种质材料。依据供试材料的特征, 结合各自的形态和产量生理指标上的差异, 对耐低氮的可能机理进行了讨论。

关键词:小麦; 基因型; 氮水平; 产量; 生理指标

收稿:2014-10-15   修定:2014-11-28

资助:上海市种业发展项目[沪农科种字(2012)第7号]和上海市农业科学院学科建设专项(LY11)。 * 并列第一作者。

Comparison of Low Nitrogen Tolerance of Wheat Genotypes at Seedling and Maturity Stages

XU Hong-Wei1,2,*, LU Rui-Ju1,2,*, LIU Cheng-Hong1,2, GAO Run-Hong1,2, GUO Gui-Mei1,2, HUANG Yi-Chen1,2,3, YANG Sha-Sha1,2,3, CHEN Zhi-Wei1,2, HE Ting1,2, LI Ying-Bo1,2, HUANG Jian-Hua1,2,**
1Biotech Research Institute, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 201106, China; 2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Agricultural Genetics and Breeding, Shanghai 201106, China; 3College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China

Corresponding author: XU Hong-Wei; E-mail: sw1@saas.sh.cn; Tel: 021-62201032

Abstract:

The tolerance of five wheat genotypes under low nitrogen stress was evaluated based on the morphological, yields and physiological characters by both hydroponic and filed investigations. The results showed that the plant heights and leaf dry biomass at seedling stage declined by 12%-29% and 11%-57% respectively, while the root-shoot ratios increased by 4%-52% in low nitrogen treatments comparing to those in the normal nitrogen treatments. The leaf nitrogen contents increased by 62.6%-91.7%, while leaf nitrogen accumulative amounts reduced by 47%-71% in low nitrogen treatments comparing to that in the normal nitrogen treatments. At maturity stage, the plant heights, numbers of grain per plant and yields in low nitrogen treatments were 21%-26%, 20%-41% and 26%–69% lower than those in the normal nitrogen treatments, respectively. Our results revealed that the decrease of plant heights, leaf dry biomass and nitrogen accumulative amounts in low nitrogen treatments at seedling stage limited wheat yield at maturation. There is a clear relationship on the tolerance to low nitrogen stress for the tested wheat genotypes between seedling and maturity stages, although there present variation for different genotypes. The possible mechanisms of tolerance differences of wheat genotyoes to low nitrogen stress were discussed.

Key words: wheat; genotypes; low nitrogen stress; yield; physiological parameters

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