高温逆境下植物叶片衰老机理研究进展

杨小飞, 郭房庆*
中国科学院上海生命科学研究院植物生理生态研究所, 国家植物基因研究中心(上海), 植物分子遗传国家重点实验室, 上海200032

通信作者:郭房庆;E-mail: fqguo@sibs.ac.cn;Tel: 021-54924098

摘 要:

叶片衰老是植物叶片发育的最后阶段, 其作为一个主动的生理过程, 对植物体内的营养循环再利用以及种子形成具有重要的生理意义。在植物的生长过程中, 多种环境因素会影响叶片衰老进程。高温是影响叶片衰老最重要的环境因素之一。随着温室效应的加剧, 研究高温胁迫下叶片衰老的调节机制对于通过调控叶片衰老进程, 从而增加植物产量具有重要意义。本文对高温胁迫下叶绿体及类囊体膜的损伤、光合电子传递活力的改变、活性氧累积、光合作用相关蛋白质降解及细胞自噬方面的研究进展进行了综述。

关键词:叶片衰老; 高温胁迫; 类囊体膜; ROS; 蛋白质降解

收稿:2014-07-09   修定:2014-08-20

资助:国家自然科学基金(31170244和31100215)和国家高技术研究发展计划项目(2012AA101103)。

Research Advances in Mechanisms of Plant Leaf Senescence under Heat Stress

YANG Xiao-Fei, GUO Fang-Qing*
The National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics and National Center of Plant Gene Research (Shanghai), Institute of Plant Physiology & Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China

Corresponding author: GUO Fang-Qing; E-mail: fqguo@sibs.ac.cn; Tel: 021-54924098

Abstract:

Leaf senescence is an active physiological process as the final stage of leaf development, which is critical for nutrient recycling and seed formation. Several kinds of environmental stresses can influence the progress of leaf senescing during a life cycle in higher plants, especially for heat stress, one of the most important environmental factors. With the increase in harmful effects of global warming, it is necessary to study the mechanisms of leaf senescence induced by heat stress, which will provide deep insights in better understanding how to modulate the processes of leaf senescence in order to enhance crop yields under heat stress. In this article, the recent research progresses regarding effects of heat stress on leaf senescence have been reviewed, including damages of chloroplasts and thylakoid membranes, disruption of photosynthetic electron flow, ROS accumulation, degradation of photosynthesis-related proteins and heat-induced activation of autophage in higher plants.

Key words: leaf senescence; heat stress; thylakoid membrane; ROS; protein degradation

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