植物硒生理及与重金属交互的研究进展

陈松灿1, 孙国新1, 陈正1, 陈福龙3, 朱永官1,2,*
1中国科学院生态环境研究中心土壤环境研究室, 北京100085; 2中国科学院城市环境研究所城市环境与健康研究中心重点实验室, 福建厦门361021; 3福建省地质矿产勘查开发局, 福州350001

通信作者:朱永官;E-mail: ygzhu@rcees.ac.cn;Tel: 0592-6190997

摘 要:

硒是一种重要的微量元素, 在低浓度时对生物有益, 但高浓度时呈现与重金属类似的毒性。植物作为人体硒摄入的主要来源, 其硒代谢对于植物硒积累乃至人体硒营养水平十分重要。研究植物硒吸收、代谢和积累机理能指导富硒粮食的生产, 是解决人体硒摄入不足/超量问题的有效途径。本文在阐述土壤硒含量、形态、生物有效性及分布的基础上, 综述了植物对硒的吸收、代谢机理的研究进展, 并讨论了农业生物强化以及遗传育种生物强化等两种硒生物强化的实践方法, 以及利用硒生物强化缓解重金属毒性减少积累; 最后, 提出了植物硒代谢及硒生物强化研究的前沿问题, 以期为改善人体硒营养水平提高人体健康状况提供理论和实践依据。

关键词:硒; 吸收; 代谢; 水稻; 重金属

收稿:2014-03-25   修定:2014-04-08

资助:国家自然科学基金(41371459)和国家高技术研究发展计划(863计划) (2013AA06A209)。

Progresses on Selenium Metabolism and Interaction with Heavy Metals in Higher Plants

CHEN Song-Can1, SUN Guo-Xin1, CHEN Zheng1, CHEN Fu-Long3, ZHU Yong-Guan1,2,*
1Department of Soil Environment Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; 2Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, Fujian 361021, China; 3Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration and Development, Department of Land and Resource of Fujian Province, Fuzhou 350001, China

Corresponding author: ZHU Yong-Guan; E-mail: ygzhu@rcees.ac.cn; Tel: 0592-6190997

Abstract:

Selenium (Se) is an essential element for many organisms and toxic when its concentration elevated. As plants are the main source of dietary Se, plant Se metabolism therefore is important for Se nutrition of human and the Se status in the ecosystem. Plant Se uptake and metabolism can be exploited for the purposes of developing Se-enriched crop cultivars (biofortification) and reducing the health risk of heavy metals. Here we summarize the concentration, forms, distribution and bioavailability of Se in the soil, which predetermines the accumulation of Se by plants. We also review the main knowledge of Se uptake and metabolism in the higher plant underpinning Se biofortification strategies and antagonism to heavy metals. Two complementary biofortification approaches including agronomic approaches and genetic approaches, which have been successfully adopted to increase the concentrations of Se in plant food, are also discussed. In addition, the interaction between Se and heavy metals was present in order to provide comprehensive perspective. In the end, related hotspot problems on the aspect of Se metabolism and biofortification were proposed to help in the better management of the agricultural production of Se-rich crops for biofortification.

Key words: selenium; uptake; metabolism; rice; heavy metals

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