低温对鲜食玉米种子萌发及幼苗生长的影响

张海艳*
青岛农业大学农学与植物保护学院, 山东青岛266109

通信作者:张海艳;E-mail: hyzhang608@126.com;Tel: 0532- 88030342

摘 要:

以糯玉米和甜玉米品种为材料, 采用光照培养箱进行3个温度处理(25、20和15 ℃), 研究低温胁迫对鲜食玉米种子萌发和幼苗生长、生物量分配及防御酶活性的影响。结果表明, 随着温度降低, 种子的发芽率、发芽势、发芽指数、活力指数、发芽速度指数及幼苗的苗高、根长、苗和根生物量、苗生物量分配、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性均显著降低, 平均发芽时间显著延长。与对照(25 ℃)相比, 20 ℃条件下糯玉米和甜玉米种子发芽率分别降低2.0%~5.4%、24.8%~26.6%, 根苗比分别增加38.4%~55.1%、71.6%~91.2%; 15 ℃条件下发芽率均降低100%, 根苗比分别增加227.4%~459.6%、691.7%~1060.0%。表明低温抑制鲜食玉米种子发芽和幼苗生长, 甜玉米种子萌发受抑程度可能大于糯玉米; 苗比根对低温更敏感, 甜玉米表现尤为明显。

关键词:糯玉米; 甜玉米; 低温; 种子萌发; 幼苗生长

收稿:2013-01-14   修定:2013-03-19

资助:国家自然科学基金(31101100)、青岛市科技计划项目[11-2-4-5-(8)-jch]和作物生物学国家重点实验室开放课题(2013KF05)。

Effects of Low Temperature on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Fresh Corn

ZHANG Hai-Yan*
College of Agronomy and Plant Protection, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong 266109, China

Corresponding author: ZHANG Hai-Yan; E-mail: hyzhang608@126.com; Tel: 0532- 88030342

Abstract:

Waxy corn and sweet corn were germinated with three temperature treatments (25, 20 and 15 ℃) in incubators to study the effects of low temperatures on seed germination, seedling growth, biomass allocation and activties of antioxidant enzymes of fresh corn. The results showed that, with the decrease of temperature, germination percentage, germination energy, germination index, vigor index, germination velocity index, seed-ling height, root length, shoot and root biomass, biomass allocation to shoot, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities decreased significantly, and the average germination time increased significantly. Compared with the control treatment (25 ℃), treatment of 20 ℃ could decrease germination percentage of waxy corn and sweet corn by 2.0%–5.4% and 24.8%–26.6%, respectively, and increase root/seedling ratio of waxy corn and sweet corn by 38.4%–55.1% and 71.6%–91.2%, respectively. The treatment of 15 ℃ could de-crease germination percentage of waxy corn and sweet corn by 100%, and increase root/seedling ratio in waxy corn and sweet corn by 227.4%–459.6% and 691.7%–1060.0%, respectively. Low temperature inhibited seed germination and seedling growth, and had much more effect on sweet corn than waxy corn. Seedling was more sensitive to low temperature than root, which was more evident in sweet corn than waxy corn.

Key words: waxy corn; sweet corn; low temperature; seed germination; seedling growth

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