种子萌发过程中胚乳的突破性研究

徐振江, 陈兵先, 赵晟楠, 袁红霞, 郜珊珊, 张瑜, 陈靖, 王晓峰*
华南农业大学生命科学学院种子科学与技术研究室, 广州510642

通信作者:王晓峰;E-mail: xfwang@scau.edu.cn;Tel: 020-38632105

摘 要:

胚乳将许多种子的胚完全包裹, 是这些种子萌发的物理屏障, 其破裂与否是决定种子萌发与否的最后开关。胚乳破 裂是胚生长产生由内向外“顶”的机械力量以及胚乳组织本身机械强度下降(胚乳弱化)的共同结果, 而胚乳弱化则包括细胞 壁的酶促和非酶促松弛机制。本文综述胚生长产生的机械力量、胚乳破裂的部位和方式、胚乳的组织结构及其细胞壁的 化学组成、各种细胞壁降解酶及非酶的扩展蛋白(expansin)和活性氧在胚乳弱化中的作用等方面的研究进展。

关键词:种子萌发; 胚乳弱化; 细胞壁降解酶; 扩展蛋白; 活性氧

收稿:2012-06-04   修定:2012-07-19

资助:国家自然科学基金( 3 0 8 7 0 2 2 4 ) 和广东省自然科学基金(07006658)。

Breaking through the Endosperm during Seed Germination

XU Zhen-Jiang, CHEN Bing-Xian, ZHAO Sheng-Nan, YUAN Hong-Xia, GAO Shan-Shan, ZHANG Yu, CHEN Jing, WANG Xiao-Feng*
Laboratory of Seed Science and Technology, College of Life Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China

Corresponding author: WANG Xiao-Feng; E-mail: xfwang@scau.edu.cn; Tel: 020-38632105

Abstract:

Endosperm completely encloses the embryo of many seeds and is a mechanical restraint for the completion of germination. Thus, rupture of the endosperm is the last key step controlling the process of germination. Rupture of the endosperm requires the growth potential of embryo and weakening of the endosperm after imbibition. Weakening of the endosperm involves enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. This review summarizes research progress in growth potential of embryo, location and ways of endosperm rupture, structure of the endosperm and chemical composition of endosperm cell walls, roles of cell-wall-degrading enzymes, expansin and reactive oxygen species.

Key words: seed germination; endosperm weakening; cell-wall-degrading enzymes; expansin; reactive oxygen species

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